The Japanese archipelago runs straight along the plate boundary, so volcanic activity is frequent. There are many volcanic landscapes, such as caldera and air hole (cave formed by volcanic activity). However, there are also many water springs, so the hot spring culture is very common in Japan. Due to the frequent rainfall and sea, there are variety of water landscape in Japan such as waterfalls and lakes, pond and wetlands. In addition, many different birds and fish live by and in the water.